23 Oct 2021

Internet of Things (IoT).

Internet of Things (IoT).

Internet of Things (IoT)  refers to devices that collect and transfer or transmit data through the internet. It also describes the network of physical objects instilled with sensors, software, and other technologies. It’s for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet.

We have IoT devices that connect wirelessly to a network and have the ability to transmit data. They are the nonstandard computing devices.

Internet of Things (IoT) makes our world to get connected together. Nowadays we almost have internet infrastructure wherever and we can use it whenever.


IoT security and privacy

With any technology, there’s the potential for good and bad. Here you would need to know what could go wrong at any given time.

Strong security is essential. Connection to the internet can open the door to cybercriminals. Cyberattacks already access data like bank logins, credit card numbers, and more.

The Internet of Things will continue to open up opportunities for new online threats. For instance always ensure that your connections stay safe and secure.

The best ways to help defend your networked devices is to make sure that your router is secure. Think of your Wi-Fi router as the front door to your online world


Example of an IoT devices.

The devices communicate with usable sensor data to users, businesses and other intended parties.

The devices can be into three main groups: consumer, enterprise and industrial.

  1. Consumer connected devices

This includes smart appliances, smart speakers, toys, wearables and smart TVs. In a smart home, for example, devices are designed to sense and respond to a person’s presence. They also tend to give you warnings in case of any and possible solutions.

  1. Enterprise IoT devices

They include, smart security, smart locks smart lighting and smart thermostats.

This are edge devices a business design use. Because they are geared towards maintaining a facility or improving operational efficiency. A good illustration would be in a boardroom meeting, where you get to have a PowerPoint presentation. This will need the lights dim and PowerPoint loads on the screen.

  1. Industrial IoT devices

The design of this devices are in use mostly in factories or other industrial environments. Here sensors used to monitor an assembly line or other manufacturing process.Ensuring that key processes are running optimally,data from various types of sensors should transmit it to monitoring applications.




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15 Jul 2021

Clear cache and cookies

Meaning of Cache and Cookies.

To clear cache and cookies helps to increase the loading time of web pages and increases the performance of your computer.

Cookies are files created by sites you visit. Hence making your online experience easier by saving browsing data. On the other hand cache remembers parts of pages, like images, to help them open faster during your next visit. The main difference between Cache and Cookie is that, Cache stores online page resources during a browser or decrease the loading time. While cookies are employed to store user choices such as browsing session to trace the user preferences.



It is a good idea to clear your browser cache because it:

  • prevents you from using old forms
  • protects your personal information
  • helps your applications run better on your computer


How to clear cache and cookies in chrome

  1. On your computer, open Chrome.
  2. At the top right, click More .
  3. Click More tools Clear browsing data.
  4. At the top, choose a time range. To delete everything, select All time.
  5. Next to “Cookies and other site data” and “Cached images and files,” check the boxes.
  6. Click Clear data.

Now the cache and cookies are clear and ready for browsing again.


What happens after you clear this information

After you clear cache and cookies:

  • Some settings on sites get deleted. For example, if you were signed in, you’ll need to sign in again.
  • If you turn sync on in Chrome, you’ll stay signed into the Google Account you’re syncing to in order to delete your data across all your devices.
  • Some sites can seem slower because content, like images, needs to load again.

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28 Jun 2021

Screen time

Screen time

This is the amount of time spent using a device with a screen such as a smartphone, computer, television, or video game console. With screen time

you can manage the time your kids spend on their tablets and smartphones

More people simply don’t realize that they spend a lot of time every day on their apps and games. People are becoming more and more addicted to mobile phones. Whether it is adults or children, whether at the time of dinner or at the parties, the problem of mobile addiction has become more and more serious. A successful person can manage his time better when using screen time. We can better understand the usage of our mobile phones whether it’s a game or an app.

Usually we don’t realize that we spend a lot of time on some applications. Using screen time you can be more aware of your habit of using your phone and make adjustments accordingly.


Tips for Reducing Screen Time

Set a timer

Use a timer on your phone, in that when it goes off you turn off the device. Make an effort to move your body you can go for a walk, clean a room or try an at home workout. Keep your body busy with something else rather than your phone, computer or television.

Turn off notifications.

Screen management

Health benefits of screen time.

This are messages from apps that appear on your screen to alert you of new activity. This triggers you to look at your phone and, more likely than not, spend additional time on your phone beyond checking what the notification is.

Leave the phone out of sight.

Especially when going to sleep people tend to have their phones with them. This interferes with your sleep and can significantly add to your daily screen time. Use an alarm clock to wake up each morning and leave your phone on a small table slightly away from your bed.

Experts say adults should limit the screen outside of work to less than two hours per day. Any time beyond that which you would typically spend on screens should instead be spent participating in physical activity.

What’s a healthy amount on screen for adults? Learn here.


Negative Effects:

  • Eye Strain and Headaches
  • Reduced Physical Activity Levels
  • Insomnia and Poor Sleep
  • Neck, Shoulder and Back Pain, this depends on the posture you use when holding your phone or using the laptop.
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26 May 2021

Domain Name System (DNS)

 Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is one of the foundations of the internet, yet most people outside of networking probably don’t realize it. As they use it every day to do their jobs, check their email or waste time on their smartphones. It is a hierarchical and decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities.

Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address which other machines use to find the device. DNS servers eliminate the need for humans to memorize IP addresses. It ensures the Internet is not only user-friendly but also works smoothly, loading the content users ask for quickly and efficiently.

How Does DNS Work

DNS is the cornerstone of how the Internet operates. Computer refers to a DNS server to find the corresponding IP address, every time you type a domain name into your browser. Let say you type a domain into your browser, such as example.com your computer will use a DNS server to resolve the IP address of that website’s server.

Once the IP address is  identified, your computer contacts the website’s server, which in turn serves your computer the website that you want to access.

The DNS Network

This is a database of website domains and IP addresses. Its key function is to store the data and link the domain names and IP addresses when requested. It includes other functions such as:

  1. Domain Namespace Hierarchy; this enables a user to quickly find the correct server that hosts the DNS records that they require.
  2. Distribution; here each server holds a small portion of data that are distributed over a vast network of connected servers.
  3. Record Maintenance; the process involves locating IP addresses connected to domain names and storing this data.

Domain Namespace

This is the hierarchical structure of the DNS servers.

DNS structure

The DNS Hierarchy

When you type a domain name into your browser, the computer checks cache to see if it has previously requested that domain name. DNS server receives a request when there is no record. The local DNS server checks to see if it has any records in its cache. If not, it locates the details of the name server that hosts the domain record for that particular domain.

In order for this to happen, the local DNS server breaks the domain name into sections. For example, www.domain.com.

  • com
  • domain
  • www

The ‘com’ section is known as the top-level domain (TLD). First the local DNS server will connect to a root name server to find details of the server that holds the domain info for this TLD. Once the TLD name server IP address is identified, the local DNS server will make a request to this new server to find out which name server holds details on the second part of the domain name (i.e. domain).

The local DNS server makes further requests for the name servers that contain data on domain.com and the www.domain.com, working down until the IP address is resolved. Your browser can then use this IP address to contact the server hosting the website. Need a domain? click here to get in touch with us and register.

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07 May 2021

Privacy and Identity Theft

Privacy and identity theft

When an unauthorized person uses your personal identifying information, such as your name, address, or credit card or bank account information to assume your identity in order to commit fraud or other criminal acts, that’s identity theft.

Different Forms of Identity Theft


This occurs when someone uses your card without your permission. Even if a criminal doesn’t have your physical card in hand, they can still make unauthorized transactions with your credit card number, PIN and security code. Someone could even use your card information to try to gain access to your other accounts.

Online Shopping Fraud

Some criminals use your saved card information to make unapproved purchases, as they have mastered the art of hacking their way into website accounts. A common situation occurs when shoppers use their accounts while connected to an unfamiliar Wi-Fi network, such as one at public places. Hackers can set up the exact legitimate networks with the intention of stealing the information of anyone who connects. Hence it’s always smart to shop, do your banking and handle any other sensitive information on a private Wi-Fi network you trust.

Phone scams

You may get a call from these fraudster claiming to be working from a certain bank or credit firms. They call asking for crucial information, such as your pin. If you receive this kind of call, don’t provide any information over the phone.


This is a number of malicious software variants, including viruses, ransomware and spyware. Malware could allow the criminal to access the device and information stored on it. Criminals use different techniques to install malware on another person’s device.

Child Identity Theft

This occurs when a child’s identity is compromised by fraudsters. Unfortunately, a good amount of child identity theft occurs within families. They can use Social Security numbers, birthdays, addresses and more to open fraudulent accounts. They may also apply for government benefits, take out loans or find other ways to rack up debt in the child’s name.

Signs of identity theft to look out for.

  1. When you get calls from credit and debt collectors about charges you didn’t make.
  2. Your financial statements have discrepancies, or your bank statement shows purchases or withdrawals you are not aware of.
  3. When you don’t get bills in the mail. Meaning someone has stolen your data and changed your billing address
  4. Getting unfamiliar charges on your credit card statement.
  5. You receive medical bills for services you didn’t receive.

Need to get in touch? Get us on https://kemnet.co.ke/contact/

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20 Apr 2021

Online Grooming


Sexual abuse, both in person and online, and exploitation to obtain sexually explicit images and videos of the child are the harm caused.

It can happen quickly or over time, but at its core it’s a process of exploiting trust to shift expectations of what safe behavior is and leveraging fear and shame to keep a child silent.

Grooming is really the start of the sexual abuse/exploitation process, and is a damaging part of the sexual abuse experience.



Offenders use a multitude of tactics to manipulate children into complying with their requests.

Grooming Tactics

  • Offender falsely identifying themselves online as one of the child’s peers either as a friend or a close relative.
  • They flatter, compliments and support the predator.
  • Promise of a “better” life just to lure them into the trap.
  • Asking questions to see if a child is alone in a room.
  • Promise of gifts, money, cell phones, tablets, drugs, alcohol.
  • Using parents against the child like telling them your parents are too strict, your parents don’t understand you.
  • Telling the child to keep their conversations a secret.
  •  Manipulating children to send photos or blackmailing them with photos the child may have already sent.
  • Exchange of sexual pictures to make victim more comfortable in sending sexual pictures or videos in return.

Actions to take;

Because grooming is often the first stage of sexual abuse, it can create a sense for parents that if they can prevent grooming, they can eliminate the possibility of sexual abuse altogether.

  1. If you see, read, hear anything sexual from an adult towards a child online or in real life, report it.
  2. Empower yourself with knowledge. Learn more about the prevalence of child sexual abuse, how it happens, and how to reduce risk to your child.
  3. Stay up to date on emerging trends and risks online.

Report any case that you may suspect to be exploiting and causing any harm to your child. Always be on the lookout for your Child’s well-being, especially on the internet.



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16 Apr 2021

Parental control guidelines on the Internet

Parental controls are the names for a group of settings that put you in control of what content your child can see. They are useful tools to help minimize the risks your children may face, but they are not 100% effective. Combined with privacy settings these can help you protect your children from the things they shouldn’t see or experience online. It’s really important to teach your child skills like critical thinking and resilience, so they know what do if they encounter risk. Always encourage them to talk to you about anything they find upsetting online.


Guidelines for Safe Internet Browsing by Age

Kids under 5 years:

Build a white list and choose a handful of sites you’re comfortable with, and plug them into the device your child uses. As he gets older and needs greater access, simply add to the list.

Kids 5 to 8 years:

Use a kid-friendly browser and disable the browser on your child’s device by going to Settings. Replace it with a kid-friendly one that you download from the app store. Choose an app which lets her access only sites it identifies as safe.

For 9 years and up:

Go with Google Safe Search, this search engine does an effective job of filtering explicit images and content. On a computer, go to the preferences section in Google, click “Turn on Safe-search” and then “Lock Safe-search.” On a mobile device, go to Google, click “Settings,” then select “Search settings” and choose “Filter explicit results.” Repeat for each browser.


parental guidelines on the internet.

Parenting Kids in the Age of Screens, Social Media and Digital Devices.

How to Set Parental Controls

Android Parental Controls

On these features you can restrict apps, games, movies, and TV your child tries to download from the Google Play Store. In order to limit or track, you need to download the Family Link app, then create a Google account for your child. Continue to select your child’s name and tap the Daily limits card, then select Edit limits and follow the instructions. When time is almost up and the device is about to be locked, the user will get a notification.


Amazon Fire Parental Controls

This includes Free Time, this is built into every device. It restricts purchases, bans ads, and allows access only to content you approve. On the limits you can set time restrictions for various activities and prevent the playing of games or videos for a set amount of time.

This parental control is best for kids 8years and under.

Windows 10 Parental Controls

Microsoft family lets you filter websites, block apps, games, and other media on this features. It also regulate your child’s ability to make Microsoft Store purchases.

You can set screen-time limits for individual user sessions. Keep in Mind you’ll have to set up an online Microsoft account and e-mail address for your child.

This is best for kids over 8 year.

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24 Mar 2021



Phishing is a type of social engineering attack often used to steal user data, including login credentials and credit card numbers.

It occurs when an attacker, masquerading as a trusted entity, dupes a victim into opening an email, instant message, or text message.

Phishing attacks are the practice of sending fraudulent communications that appear to come from a reputable source. It is usually done through email. The goal is to steal sensitive data like credit card and login information, or install malware on the victim’s machine.

Three Stages Of a Phishing Attack

Step 1: The Information (Bait)

The first of the three steps of a phishing attack is preparing the bait. This involves finding out details about the target. It can be as simple as knowing that they use a particular service or work at a particular business. If a service leaks a list of just email addresses of its users, criminals will be able to know all the owners of those email addresses. They will use that service and can target them with emails that pretend to be from that service.

In more sophisticated spear phishing attacks, cyber criminals can harvest details from your social media profiles in order to build a highly customized spear phishing message that is highly likely to convince you of its genuineness.

How to identify phishing attacks.

Glance at how your emails can be hacked.

Step 2: The Promise (Hook)

Once the attacker has acquired the necessary information to use as bait, they then need to lay out the hook. To actually make the target perform an action, the attacker needs to promise something or scare them into action.

In many scams the hook involves making the target believe that one of their accounts have been compromised. This creates a sense of urgency and making the target act quickly, perhaps without thinking. The attacker can then redirect the target to follow a link to a page where they can harvest the victim’s details.

Step 3: The Attack (Catch)

The third phase of phishing is the actual attack. The cyber criminal sends out the email, and prepares for the prey to fall for the bait.

What the attacker’s next action will be will depend on the nature of the scam. For example, if they used a landing page to gain the victim’s email password, they can then log in to the victim’s email account in order to harvest more information and start sending further phishing emails to the victim’s contacts.

Ways to Prevent Phishing Attacks

Don’t give your information to an unsecured site

If the URL of the website doesn’t start with “https” do not enter any sensitive information or download files.

Know what a phishing scam looks like

There are many sites online that will keep you informed of the latest phishing attacks and their key identifiers. The earlier you find out about the latest attack methods and share them with your users through regular security awareness training, the more likely you are to avoid a potential attack.

Install firewalls

Firewalls are an effective way to prevent external attacks, acting as a shield between your computer and an attacker.

Don’t give out important information unless you must

As a general rule of thumb, unless you 100% trust the site you are on, you should not willingly give out your card information.

Need domains and hosting, Internet connection, Web solutions? Feel free to contact us anytime. Give us a call or drop us an email.


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16 Mar 2021



Latency, also called ping. It measures how much time it takes for your computer, the internet, and everything in between, to respond to an action you take. Like clicking on a link. In other words, it affects how responsive your internet connection, video, or game feels.

Ping is another way of describing latency. The ping is the request you’re sending to the server, and the ping rate is how long it takes for that request to transmit and come back with the result.

It is generally measured in milliseconds (ms) and is unavoidable due to the way networks communicate with each other. It depends on several aspects of a network and can vary if any of them are changed.

Aspects of internet latency.

What causes latency?

  1. Transmission medium:The physical path between the start point and the end point. The type of medium can impact latency. Distance is usually the main cause of latency—in this case, it refers to the distance between your computer and the servers your computer is requesting information from.
  2. Propagation: In physics, propagation is the sending out or spreading of light or sound waves, movement. When we’re talking internet, propagation is the action of sending out your data packets to a server. Theoretically, latency of a packet going on a round trip across the world is 133ms. In actuality, such a round trip takes longer, though latency is decreased when direct connections through network backbone are achieved.
  3. Routers: The efficiency in which routers process incoming data has a direct impact on latency. Router to router hops can increase latency. An old, slow router can bog down your computer’s connection to your internet provider’s modem, whether you use WI-Fi or an Ethernet connection.
  4. Storage delays: Accessing stored data can increase latency as the storage network may take time to process and return information.
  1. Internet connection type: Your internet connection type can also play a role in how high or low your latency is. For the most part, DSL, cable, and fiber internet tend to have lower latency, while satellite internet tends to have higher latency.


How do you fix high latency?

  • Turn off any downloads, and be sure to check for anything that’s downloading in the background.
  • Close any unused applications or browser tabs.
  • Use an Ethernet cable to connect your device to your router or modem, if at all possible.
  • Update your router’s and modem’s firmware—outdated firmware can even cause slow internet speeds.
  • Make sure your router settings are solid. Dig in to your modem and router, and make sure none of your settings are creating bottlenecks. Most routers have a settings page where you can change your password, adjust which channel the router is using, and more.Usually the login information is printed right on a sticker on the bottom of the device.
  • Upgrade your internet package. If you’ve upgraded your equipment and tweaked your settings but still aren’t getting the speeds you want, the next step is to upgrade to a faster internet package. Not sure how much speed you need? We’ve got a handy speed recommendation on our packages, check them out.


Bandwidth vs. latency

Higher bandwidth is better. Bandwidth is a measure of how much data can be transferred from one point in a network to another within a specific amount of time. When talking about internet connections, it’s usually measuring how much data can be downloaded to your device from a server on the internet.Your actual bandwidth will often be less than your maximum bandwidth because of network congestion and other external factors. If you want to see how fast your internet connection is now, use a speed test.


Lower latency is better. It refers to how much time it takes for a signal to travel to its destination and back. To test this, your computer sends a “ping” of information to a remote server and measures how long it takes for the signal to come back.

Lower latency is better because it is essentially a delay between when you take an action and when you see the result—high latency is when it takes longer to see the results. The less delay, the better.

Every time you put in a request to your internet connection, it sends a signal to the server to retrieve the information and then bring it back to you. Since this usually happens pretty quickly, it is measured in milliseconds.

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24 Feb 2021



The internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the internet protocol suite to communicate between networks and devices. The internet provides networking, as it links computers to allow them operate interactively. It is a network of networks that share each other. It is inter-working as it can connect to different networks using intermediary devices. On the internet every device has its own unique IP address. Principles of an IP address:

  • It identifies the host,specifically its network interface
  • It provides the location of the host in the network.

Principles of an IP address is characterized as follows:

  • A name indicates what we seek.
  • An address indicates where it is.
  • A route indicates how to get there.
  • The header of each IP packet contains the IP address of the sending host, and that of the destination host.


Peering is a process by which two internet networks connect and exchange traffic. This allows direct hand of traffic between customers without having to pay a third party to carry that traffic across the Internet for them. This could involve running a circuit across town from one network’s facility to the other’s. Network operators may peer for reasons such as:

  • They have control over their traffic, in that it goes across the Internet via whatever path the transit provider decides to use.
  • It’s cheaper to hand off traffic themselves rather than paying somebody else to do it.
  • It gives greater control over their traffic flows, or allows them to better serve local populations.



Peering is typically settlements free.

We have two main types of peering, public and private peering.

Public peering, done through an Internet exchange, is more common and more efficient. An Internet exchange is an Ethernet switch in a data center, which all the networks peering in the facility connect to. A network can peer with many other networks through a single connection using an Internet exchange. Peering arrangements needs to be negotiated with each peer, but no new cabling needs to be done.
Private peering within a data center combines the two approaches. Two networks put routers in the same building, and run a direct cable between them rather, than connecting through the exchange point switch. This is most useful when the networks are exchanging a large volume of traffic, which won’t fit on a shared connection to an exchange point. This is sometimes done when the networks are exchanging a large volume of traffic, which won’t fit on a shared connection to an exchange point.

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